In the northeastern part, on the banks of the legendary Ukrainian rivers Dnieper and Don, the Kharkiv region is spread. It occupied 31,418 km2 and became the fourth largest in the country. Located in the steppe and forest-steppe zones, it borders on several Ukrainian regions (Donetsk, Lugansk, Poltava, Sumy and Dnepropetrovsk), as well as the Russian Belgorod region. The relief here is predominantly flat, with slight slopes in the southwest and southeast towards the river basins. In the north-east, the region occupies a part of the Central Russian Upland, and in the south – a part of the Donetsk ridge.

The famous Dnieper-Donbass canal runs through the territory of the region, and shale gas is being produced on the border with the Donetsk region (Yuzovskoye field). The Don River is the main supplier of all water resources in the region (by 75%). there are about 50 reservoirs here, the largest of which are Pechenezhskoye, Krasnopavlovskoye and Oskolskoye. The largest water bodies include the rivers Bereka, Oskol, Udy and Lake Liman.