Ukrainian Lands at
the 16-18th Centuries Maps

Unique project Vkraina.com

The main purpose of this project is to shed a light on Ukrainian cartography from the times of European Renaissance till the Cossack State disintegration in 18th century. Here, the genuine historic materials of this electronic archive illustrate a topic that is somehow a bit forgotten, restricted in the past, and yet not enough explored and popularized in Ukraine nowadays.

The world history is often rethought and might contain many contradictions but true knowledge of certain events and their evaluation in historic retrospective can still be gained through documented data. The maps are one of the most available

documentary sources. It is interesting to analyze and compare cartographic sources of different times, different political formations and different circumstances.

The maps, selected for the project, are of great importance for the history of Ukraine’s international relations and provide a generalized perception of the Ukrainian lands status as seen by the Europeans in 16th-18th centuries.

European Mapping of Ukrainian Lands

Since the times of its origin, cartography has been one of the main sources of diverse knowledge about lands and territories: landscape features, natural characteristics, political and national system, borderlines, everything can be learnt from a map. Ukrainian lands from

ancient times were mapped far beyond its borders, mainly in Holland, France, Germany, and England – the scientific centers of the epoch. Unfortunately, we could not rely on the needed scientific basis or political demand in our own boundaries after the Mongols invaded Rus`. That is why it is possible to reach the deepness of Ukrainian history only with the help of European maps and their point of view. Europeans of 16-18th centuries had rather primitive knowledge about our land. Only few researchers, scientists and even travelers reached the middle of Rus' territories, and even less could claim floating down the Dnieper River or Bug. We can simply envy the bravery and courage the renaissance researchers had, for the territories from Kaniv through the Black Forest and up to immense steppes near the Black Sea have been a constant danger for one’s life and freedom.

The first mentions of the "Ukraine" name on the maps by Krzysztof Radziwiłł and Guilla- ume le Vasseur de Beauplan

One of the chapters in Guillaume de Beauplan’s Desciption of Ukraine says, “100 or even 1000 people cannot feel safe here. Even the armies need to move forward in a peculiar strict order. These lands are invaded by the Tatars that never settle down but keep on sneaking all over the endless plains; they usually ride in squats of 5-6 thousand, sometimes 10 thousand even”. Beauplan spent 17 years in Ukraine, and during this period he not only managed to built numerous fortresses for Polish Crown, but also created an accurate and neat both geographical and artistic description of the lands between Transilvania and Moscovia, under the name Ukraine. The first edition of Description of Ukraine included a detailed

map was published in Rouen in 1651. It remained the main source of cartographic knowledge about Ukraine for the next 200 years. Before Beauplan, the territories known as Volun', Podillya and Chervona (Red) Rus' were explored in 1586, by an order of Lithuanian ruler, Krzysztof Radziwiłł. No wonder we have a few cartographic artifacts of that period as the Wild Plain (or Dzike Pole by Beauplan), the lands from Cherkasy down the Dnieper flow, were not welcoming for travelers or settled life.

Ukraine at the Map of Radziwiłł

In 1613, a fabulously crafted and extremely detailed Lithuanian map, the result of long research work inspired by Krzysztof Radziwiłł, was published. It also included an important annex – a map of Dnieper River flow from Cherkassy down to the Black Sea. This masterpiece of late

Renaissance scholar is of fundamental importance for the history of Ukrainian cartography. Being a detailed and geographically correct depiction of Ukrainian lands, villages, towns, rivers, and roads, the Map of Lithuania by Radziwill also is the first cartographic source that stated the name "Ukraine", marked in the central Dnieper, between cities Rzhyshchev and Kaniv. Before that, the lands of central and western Ukraine were called only as Rus’ (Russia), Volyn’, Podillya according to a tradition. All of the earlier cases of using the name "Ukraine" on European maps are seriously doubtful and probably unreliable.

Maps and Politics

At all times mapping was an instrument of manipulation and political intrigues, and the history of Ukrainian land cartography

is no exception here. Some of the neighbors repeatedly tried to include certain lands to their own states and officially state it in a valid source as the map was. As far as only the cartographers certified by the monarchs had the right to publish maps, the political message of the treatises was presupposed to fit in with the royal will. Constant division of our lands and confrontations between Poland, Lithuania, Moscowia, and Tatars, permanent re-owning the positions and territories by Zaporozhian Cossacks during 16-17th centuries resulted in poor knowledge of our land by the Europeans. Consequently, it caused certain, and sometimes complete chaos in the minds of European geographers that tried to mark the huge space between the Carpathians and Moscowia. Yet today, despite those objective circumstances, we should be grateful to all of the European scientists,

cartographers, geographers and engravers who managed to spotlight the geographic and political aspects of the lands we nowadays call Ukraine. Counting all of the anxiety during Cossacks origin, during the formation of the Cossack State, and Ukrainian struggle for political independence from Poland, Tatars and Moscowia in the 17th century through the decline of the Ukrainian state in the late 18th century, we still have written evidences of Ukraine's geopolitical legacy at the political map of Europe. Along with Guillaume de Beauplan, there are many famous European cartographers who contributed to Ukrainian mapping heritage. Nicolas Sanson, Frederick de Witt and the Bleau family, Moses Pitt, Johann Homann and Matheus Zoyter, they all had engraved the name of Ukraine in hundreds of historical documents, stating the role, place and significance of our country in all-European history.

From the Carpathians to Russia the Rus’ journey

Not to overload the project with single-type content and to avoid a duplication of data, here we represent the selected works of the rich European legacy of Ukraine’s maps from 16-17th centuries. The most important, in my humble opinion, and vivid specimens of both artistic and scientific value were chosen for this digital presentation you are welcome to enjoy. It is supposed to reflect the main message of my collection: to show the name Ukraine on the maps of the late Renaissance and early modern history, to illustrate the "journey" Rus’ had made from the Carpathians to the territory of modern Russia Federation.

The collection today and tomorrow

The whole collection nowadays includes about 200 maps and is being appended on an ongoing basis. I still haven’t got a chance to get the genuine in vivo publication of the Special and/or General map of Ukraine by Guillaume de Beauplan, too few specimens have left, and they all rest on the shelves of libraries and respectful collections. One can only rely on bon chance. There is still a dozen theoretically attainable but still elusive items worth hunting for in order to consider the collection complete. I am working through this.

I do hope that a submitted map archive, my comments and the way of presentation will be interesting and fascinating to everyone: scientists, politicians, historians,

students, schoolchildren and the ones who love and cherish the interest in history of Ukraine and its international relations.

Respectfully,
Andrii Osadchuk,
collection owner.

Vkraina is a digitized name history

Despite the artistic beauty of ancient maps and the common practice of decorating the respectable offices and apartments with them, study and research of such maps require special conditions. And it is hardly possible to offer a more convenient and affordable format than high-quality digitization of old prints, maximizing images and simple online copy and distribution tools.

The project team has made considerable efforts to digitize the content as high as possible. Therefore vkraina.com became not only a qualitative source for scientific and educational works but also, probably, the most complete and qualitative digital collection of European maps of Ukrainian lands of the XVI–XVIII centuries in the world.

vkraina.com will allow you to make the journey through the centuries and follow how Europeans' perception of the processes of formation, development and status of Ukrainian lands during the 16th-18th centuries changed. On the site pages, you can find cities and villages, rivers and lakes, events and dates, confirm or refute facts and fictions that are so closely intertwined with the history of any state and nation. We have specially selected 51 maps and placed them in clear chronological order. The maps contain author's comments, which unitedly form a brief history of the mapping of lands of Ukraine in the 16th–18th centuries.

The author, ideologist and creator of the project is a citizen of Kyiv Andriy Osadchuk, who was assisted by the team of Grape Creative Agency and Kyivstar Communications Department.

The owner of the collection, all images and materials on this site allows their unrestricted free use for educational purposes, studying, researching, analyzing and promoting European history of Ukraine and knowledge about Ukraine.

On the eve of New Year 2015 Kyivstar developed the interactive mobile app Vkraina Calendar 2015.

Vkraina Calendar offers to learn interesting facts about the history of Ukraine through the prism of modern fashion. Fashion images were created by Ukrainian designer Mila Negru and based on the collection of historical maps of Ukraine from the Vkraina project.

You can download Vkraina Calendar 2015 mobile app from the Google Play, Windows Phone 8 and Windows 8. Vkraina Calendar is also available for download as a software application on Windows 7 PCs.

All 12 pictures of the Vkraina Calendar in high quality can be downloaded from here.

Here you can see how we were making Vkraina Calendar 2015: watch on youtube.

Vkraina Calendar 2015 was created by:

Creative idea – Kyivstar,
Project Manager – Daria Partas,
Photographer – Dmitry Peretrutov, Peretrutov Studo,
Fashion Designer – Mila Negru,
Makeup Artist – Liana Yarygina,
Hairdresser – Denis Yarotskiy,
Historian Reviewer – Sergiy Gromenko,
Historical maps collector – Andriy Osadchuk,
Vkraina Calendar 2015 mobile application – Olexiy Garbuzenko.

The Ukrainian designer Mila Negru was inspired by Vkraina project by Kyivstar and created prêt-à-porter collection with prints of Ukrainian historical maps which were used in the project. You can find this collection on the designer website: mila-negru.com.

January

On the model's shoulders: the image of the I century AD Europae Tabula VIII map, by Giacomo Gastaldi.

For a long time, Ukrainian lands have been a home to various peoples. In 1 century AD the Black Sea coast had been already inhabited by Sarmatians, brave horsemen warriors.

February

Dance steps performed on the Moschovia Nuova Tavola map, by Girolamo Ruscelli, 1562.

Ukrainian theater is known throughout the world for many of its prominent figures: Ivan Kotlyarevsky, Mykhaylo Starytsky, Les Kurbas. And it is not surprising, since the first school theater was founded here in the end of the 17th century.

March

Model wears a dress with a print of Poloniae Finitimarumque locorum descriptio Auctore map, by Wencelslao Godreccio and Abraham Ortelius, 1580.

In 1580, Ukrainian printer Ivan Fedorov published the New Testament and Psalms — "The Book of New Testament" — in Ostrog. A year after, a true masterpiece of craftsmanship, the Ostrog Bible, was also completed. Ukrainian scribes Herasym Smotrytsky, Tymofiy Mykhaylovych and others have been preparing the text for the publication along with Ivan Fedorov.

April

Model wears a dress with a print of Lithvania map, by Gerard Merkator, 1609.

Ukraine is an open and welcoming land to people of different views and beliefs. In 1609, famous Christian religious order of the Roman Catholic Church, the Jesuits settled in Lutsk.

May

Model wears a dress with a print of Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae Caeterarumque Regionum Illi Adjacentium Anno map, 1613.

Ukrainian Cossacks are widely known in the world for their bravery. The first mentions of so-called "free people" are found in 15th century chronics, and in the 17th century the Zaporizhia Cossack army has been considered one of the most powerful armies in Europe. For instance, in 1613, Hetman Petro Sahaydachny and his fleet held two military campaigns to the Turkish coast of the Black Sea.

June

On the model: the image of Typus Generalis Ukrainae sive Palatinatum Podoliae, Kioviensis et Braczlaviensis map, by Moses Pitt, 1681.

Ukraine's way to independence was hard. The peace treaty signed in Bakhchysarai in 1681, by the Turkish Empire, Crimean Khanate and Muscovy, was an important milestone in the development of Ukrainian statehood.

July

Model wears a turban with a print of Tabula nova totius regni Poloniae Amsterdam map, by Visscher Nicolas, 1690.

Ivan Mazepa, one of the most known Cossack leaders in history, influenced the cultural development of the country greatly, supporting education and spiritual life. During the time of his Hetman ruling, Ukrainian land became closer to Europe. In 1690, Ivan Mazepa restored the Assumption Cathedral of Kyiv-Pechery Lavra at his own expense.

August

Model wears a dress with a print of Ukrania quae et Terra Cosaccorum cum vicinis Walachiae, Moldoviae map, by Johann Baptiste Homann, 1720.

The russification of Ukraine has a long history. In 1720, Tsar Peter I issued an order which prohibited printing in Kyiv and Chernigiv: no other new Ukrainian church books but the metric were allowed to be printed.

September

The eyes of the model are tied with a ribbon imprinted with Nova et Accurata Tartariae Europae seu Minoris et in specie Crimeae map, by Matthaus Seutter, 1740.

In 1740, the representatives of the nobility, Cossack officers and senior Ukrainian clergy started to develop the code of rights and obligations of Left-Bank Ukraine residents. Three years after, the ideas were collected in one document under the name of Legislations for the Malorossia People Judiciary.

October

The model stands in front of the wall with the image of Amplissima Ucraniae Regio Palatinatus Kioviensem et Braclaviensem map, by Matthaus Seutter, 1742.

Children continue their parents work, and when in 1742, the author of the first European Constitution Pylyp Orlyk died, his son Grygory led the Ukrainian political emigration. Largely through the efforts of the emigration, Ukrainian people started to be recognized as a separate nation.

November

Model wears a kerchief with a print of Partie Du Cours du Dneper map, 1769.

There is no order of any power that can take away the culture from its people. Although in 1769, the printing house of Kyiv-Pechery Lavra was prohibited to print alphabets in Ukrainian, people kept their own written language and linguistic traditions.

December

Model dances in a dress with a print of Confluent et embouchure du Bog et du Dniéper map, 1785.

Ukrainian philosopher Grygory Skovoroda defended the individual rights of a human being and sympathized the enslaved peasants. In 1785, he completed his poetic book "The Garden of Divine Songs", in which the main aim of the lyrical hero is the liberation of his people. The poem "On Liberty" sees freedom as the greatest wealth of the person.

vkraina.com offers a virtual tour of ancient Ukrainian lands. At different times Europeans called them Sarmatia, Rvussia, Rossia Rossa, Pays des Cosaques, Podolia, Terra Cosaccorum, Vkraina. For hundreds of years, the local ethnic group has succeeded in maintaining its identity and becoming the only state as big and indivisible as we know it now.

To get a better understanding of the present, study the past by travelling through European maps of the 16th – 18th centuries!
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